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#1About Automated Driving

Three Stages of Vehicle Driving

Vehicle driving behavior consists of three stages, which are ‘Recognition’, ‘Judgment’ and ‘Operation’.
‘Recognition’ refers to the driver behavior that checks conditions around the vehicle. [Recognition]
‘Judgment’ is the decision the driver makes based on the recognition regarding how he drives the vehicle. [Judgment]
‘Operation’ is implemented based on the driver’s judgment by using the steering wheel, accelerator and brake pedal. [Operation]
The human driver rapidly or simultaneously performs driving tasks based on these three stages.

Vehicle Conducts a Certain part or all of These Tasks in Replacement of Human Drivers

In automated driving, a machine or a vehicle, conducts a certain part or all of these tasks in replacement of human drivers.
The level of automated driving depends on to what extent and/or in what scenes the tasks are automated.
However, generally speaking, assistance in ‘Recognition’ alone may not be regarded as automated driving.
Only after having machine intervention in ‘Judgment’ and ‘Operation’, people will acknowledge the technology as automated driving.

Difference between Driver Assistance and Automated Driving

According to the definition by SAE (Society of Automobile Engineers), assistance in one of vehicle’s basic functions of ‘Drive’, ‘Turn’ or ‘Stop’ isn’t enough to be regarded as automated driving. The technology of that level is called as driver assistance.
It is not until the automated control of both the acceleration & deceleration (longitudinal direction) and the steering (lateral direction) is achieved, that the technology is referred to as automated driving.

Driver Assistance + Steering Control = Automated Driving

For example, Adaptive Cruise Control that can accelerate & decelerate the vehicle and adjust the distance to the preceding vehicle is defined as driver assistance because it controls longitudinal movement of the vehicle alone.
By including steering control such as lane keeping assist, it is designated as automated driving.

One thing we need to mention is that in a popular sense, the term ‘automated driving’ may convey the image that you can be liberated from all the driving tasks.
At least at the moment, not all longitudinal operations such as acceleration and deceleration are automated in every situation, and the same goes for steering tasks.
Partly to avoid misunderstanding, the terms such as partial automated driving or semi-automated driving are used for such levels of automation.